ʻĪao Needle, April 2013
The ʻĪao Needle rises 1,200 ft (370 m) from the floor of the ‘Iao Valley, Maui. The valley formed as water eroded the caldera of the old West Maui volcano. An erosional remnant, the ‘Iao Neele is at the end of a ridge comprised of a denser dike stone. The softer rock around the dike stone was eroded by streams and waterfalls.
`Iao is so sacred that the remains of the highest chiefs were entrusted to secret hiding places in the valley. Kaka`e, ruler of Maui in the late 1400’s to 1500’s, is believed to have designated this valley as an ali`i burial area.
Reference (including a picture in sunshine!)
I Dreamt about a Terrific Cliff… on Flickr.
Isle of Staffa, Inner Hebrides (Scotland).
The Isle of Staffa (from the Old Norse for stave or pillar island) is a small and uninhabited of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland.
Entirely of volcanic origin, the isle consists of a basement of tuff, underneath colonnades of a black fine-grained Tertiary basalt, overlying which is a third layer of basaltic lava lacking a crystalline structure. By contrast, slow cooling of the second layer of basalt resulted in an extraordinary pattern of predominantly hexagonal columns which form the faces and walls of the principal caves.The lava contracted towards each of a series of equally spaced centres as it cooled and solidified into prismatic columns. Similar formations are found at the Giant’s Causeway In Ireland.